Kavitha Sarma, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor, Gene Expression and Regulation Program (Wistar)

The Wistar Institute
University of Pennsylvania
Department of Cell and Developmental Biology
Room 234
3601 Spruce St
Philadelphia PA 19104
Lab: 215-898-3970

R-loop biology.
R-loops are RNA containing chromatin structures that have the potential to be powerful regulators of epigenetic gene expression. Many questions about where R-loops form, what protein factors function to modulate these structures in vivo, and their mechanisms in gene regulation remain unanswered. As an independent investigator, I drew on my considerable expertise in protein and RNA biochemistry to initiate projects to understand the function and mechanisms of R-loops. We developed a novel technique that we named, “MapR”, that combines the specificity of RNase H for DNA:RNA hybrids with the sensitivity, speed, and convenience of the CUT&RUN approach, whereby targeted genomic regions are released from the nucleus by micrococcal nuclease (MNase) and sequenced directly, without the need for affinity purification. MapR is an antibody independent, recombinant protein-based technology that is fast, sensitive, and easy to implement (Yan et al, 2019). Also, we have recently improved MapR to increase resolution and confer strand specificity (Wulfridge and Sarma, 2021) and have used proximity proteomics to identify the R-loop proteome (Yan et al, 2022). We discovered a previously unappreciated role for zinc finger and homeodomain proteins in R-loop regulation and identified ADNP, a high confidence autism spectrum disorder gene, as an R-loop resolver.

Yan Q*, Shields, EJ*, Bonasio R†, Sarma K†. 2019. Mapping native R-loops genome-wide using a targeted nuclease approach. Cell Rep, 29(5):1369-1380. PMC6870988.
Yan Q, Sarma K. 2020. MapR: A method for identifying native R-loops genome-wide. Curr Protoc Mol Biol. 130(1):e113. PMC6986773.
Wulfridge P, and Sarma K. 2021. A nuclease- and bisulfite-based strategy captures strand-specific R-loops genome-wide. eLife 10:e65146. PMC7901872.
Yan Q*, Wulfridge P*, Doherty J, Fernandez-Luna JL, Real PJ, Tang HY, Sarma K. 2021. Proximity labeling identifies a repertoire of site-specific R-loop modulators. Nature Commun. 13(1):53. PMCID: PMC8748879. ‘*’- equal contribution.

Non-coding RNA regulation.
As a post-doctoral fellow, I applied my expertise in biochemistry to investigate the significance of interactions between proteins and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the context of X chromosome inactivation. I discovered a novel use for locked nucleic acids (LNAs) in the study of lncRNA function. The mechanism of Xist RNA spreading had remained an open question in the field since its discovery in the 1990s. Using LNAs, I found that Xist RNA utilizes both repetitive and unique elements within itself to spread uniformly over the entire X chromosome to silence it (Sarma et al, 2010). Furthermore, combining the use of LNAs with a high throughput sequencing approach (CHART) allowed us to identify regions of the genome that were bound by Xist RNA (Simon et al, 2013). The use of LNAs was key in discovering that Xist RNA utilizes distinct mechanisms to coat the inactive X chromosome at different developmental stages. This technology has been patented and commercialized and is now being used to functionally characterize several different non-coding RNAs that play important roles in cellular homeostasis. During this time, I also contributed to examining the interactions between the PRC2 complex and Xist RNA (Cifuentes-Rojas et al, 2014), and discovered ATRX to be a high affinity RNA binding protein that interacts with Xist RNA to regulate PRC2 enrichment on the inactive X chromosome (Sarma et al, 2014).

Sarma K, Levasseur P, Aristarkhov A, Lee JT. 2010. Locked nucleic acids (LNAs) reveal sequence requirements and kinetics of Xist RNA localization to the X chromosome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:22196-22201. PMCID: PMC3009817.
Simon MD*, Pinter SF*, Fang R*, Sarma K, Rutenberg-Schoenberg M, Bowman SK, Kesner BA, Maier VK, Kingston RE, Lee JT. 2013. High-resolution Xist binding maps reveal two-step spreading during X-chromosome inactivation. Nature 504:465-469. PMCID: PMC3904790.
Cifuentes-Rojas C, Hernandez AJ, Sarma K, Lee JT. 2014. Regulatory interactions between RNA and polycomb repressive complex 2. Mol Cell 55:171-185. PMCID: PMC4107928.
Sarma K, Cifuentes-Rojas C, Ergun A, Del Rosario A, Jeon Y, White F, Sadreyev R, Lee JT. 2014. ATRX regulates binding of PRC2 to Xist RNA and Polycomb targets. Cell 159:1228. PMID: 28898627.

Histone methyltransferases and Polycomb proteins.
I have spent a large part of my career working toward understanding the role of various chromatin factors in epigenetic gene regulation. As a graduate student, I purified and characterized some of the first reported histone lysine methyltransferases (HKMTs) such as PR-Set7, Set9, and the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2). During this time, I also developed and characterized reagents and tools that were critical to advance research in this field. My discovery that the mammalian homolog of the drosophila polycomblike protein (PHF1), a PRC2 accessory factor, facilitates the activity of the PRC2 complex provided first evidence of the role of accessory proteins in the function of the PRC2 complex (Sarma et al, 2008). Recent publications by several independent groups underscore the importance of PHF1 and other polycomblike proteins in PRC2 function. As a post-doctoral fellow, I discovered that the chromatin remodeler ATRX regulates PRC2 localization genome-wide (Sarma et al, 2014). In my own lab, we showed that ATRX-RNA interactions specify PRC2 targeting to a subset of polycomb targets (Ren et al, 2020). We also discovered that ATRX mutations in the histone binding or the helicase domains have distinct effects on PRC2 localization and neuronal differentiation (Bieluszewska et al, 2022).

Sarma K, Margueron R, Ivanov A, Pirrotta V, Reinberg D. 2008. Ezh2 requires PHF1 to efficiently catalyze H3 lysine 27 trimethylation in vivo. Mol Cell Biol 28:2718-2731. PMCID: PMC2293112.
Sarma K, Cifuentes-Rojas C, Ergun A, Del Rosario A, Jeon Y, White F, Sadreyev R, Lee JT. 2014. ATRX regulates binding of PRC2 to Xist RNA and Polycomb targets. Cell 159:1228. PMID: 28898627.
Ren W*, Medeiros N*, Warneford-Thomson R, Wulfridge P, Yan Q, Bian J, Sidoli S, Garcia BA, Skordalakes E, Joyce E, Bonasio R, Sarma K. 2020. Disruption of ATRX-RNA interactions uncovers roles in ATRX localization and PRC2 function. Nat Commun. 6;11(1):2219. PMID: 32376827
Bieluszewska A, Wulfridge P, Doherty J, Ren W, Sarma K. (2022). ATRX histone binding and helicase activities have distinct roles in neuronal differentiation. Nucleic Acids Res. PMC in progress

Research Interest

The Sarma lab focuses on elucidating the molecular mechanisms of RNA mediated epigenetic gene regulation in eukaryotes. Using various cell culture models including mouse embryonic stem cells, neuronal differentiation systems, and cancer models, we employ biochemical and various -omics tools to examine the mechanisms of RNAs and their interactions with chromatin and epigenetic modifiers in gene regulation. We have become increasingly interested in RNA containing chromatin structures called R-loops and how they are misregulated in neurodevelopmental disorders and cancers and their impact on genomic processes that can drive disease. Most recently, we developed high throughput sequencing methods to profile native R-loops and identified R-loop interactors using a proximal proteomic approach.

Lab Members

KavithaSarmaPI kavitha@sarmalab.com
AnnaBieluszewskaPostdoctoral Fellowabieluszewska@wistar.org
JohnDohertyResearch Assistantjdoherty@wistar.org
SkyeJacobsonResearch Assistantsjacobson@wistar.org
NathanielRellResearch Assistantnrell@wistar.org
PhillipWulfridgePostdoctoral Fellowpwulfridge@wistar.org
QingqingYanPostdoctoral Fellowqyan@wistar.org